Dark matter may be one of the most disgusting works of physics in science. Their work deals with something that should be in almost every model of the universe. But we never found direct evidence for the dark matter. If other scientists could capture their subjects in a laboratory and perform experiments on them, it would be nothing more than a set of clues that would stumble upon scholars of dark matter. It’s like studying ghosts — if ghosts were real and made up a quarter of the subject in the known universe.
Daniel Carney, a theoretical physicist at the University of Maryland, National Standards and Technology Institute and Fermilab, said: “Now is the open season. “Physicists are really eager to think of new ways to search for dark matter and new types of dark objects.”
Carney thinks there may be a viable solution for him. One thing we do know about dark matter is that it exerts a gravitational force. So why shouldn’t we look for it that way?
It’s as simple as this, an approach that has never been tried, because designing such an experiment involves calibration, so elegant that they seem almost impossible. But Carney and a small team of scientists have begun to work on a prototype that could one day lead to a detector where we could not see or feel the force of gravity for a minute.
The detector design is simple — hang or suspend a box full of small beads in the middle — but the theory behind its construction is the equivalent of a basic review of the search for dark matter.
A century ago astronomers discovered hints of dark matter from observations of how stars moved around the Milky Way. Since then, additional evidence has been stacked. On a larger scale, most of the things in the universe are boiling over as they move in ways that are incalculable to the laws of gravity. The galaxies rotate so fast; Similarly, clusters of galaxies do not move according to our current understanding of the force of gravity. Other evidence comes from the way galaxies bend light around them and how the cosmic microwave background (residual light from the Big Bang) radiates energy.
This adds to the fact that the universe must have more masses than we can see. The visible matter is about 5% of the mass of the universe – the dark matter must be five times larger.
But where that mass is coming from is an open question. Physicists have proposed several theories for dark matter, namely massive particles or WIMPs that are weakly related to a type of new particle. For many years, WIMPs were one of the leading candidates for the dark subject, and physicists conducted extensive experiments to catch them. This includes giant pools of liquid xenon, which give off light if you want to go through a WIMP.
But, almost 15 years later, physicists are still waiting for that flash. Many alternative theories for dark matter — it comes from so-called theoretical particles Axes, Or from primitive black holes, or our understanding of gravity is wrong – failing to provide any definite insights.
This is a big part of the reason why Carney proposes to withdraw the search for the basic insight that the dark matter must be mass.
“It’s a really simple approach,” he said. “The only thing you really know about it is gravity; it attracts the ordinary thing as gravity.”
Their Proposed design According to Carney, it is like the sound of the wind. One billion tiny sensors hang motionless in a closed space, which is monitored by a network of highly accurate light rays that can measure movements less than a fraction of the diameter of a proton.
Carney is a part of the aptly named Windshie collaboration, a newly formed team of 19 scientists from various companies dedicated to exploring the potential of the discoverer of a gravitational dark object.
The inventor’s specifics are still somewhat in the air. The sensors can be hung from thin strings or triggered by magnets. Or, we can use accelerometers similar to those found on our phones but more sensitive to monitor changes in position.
Since we know that the dark matter is gravity, the particles of any dark object will exert a small gravitational force on the sensors and stumble to identify them. Carney likens dark matter to air, which stimulates the wires of a wind, which vibrate.
But if the dark thing is wind, catching it would be like finding a sigh in the middle of a hurricane. Passing cars, feet, real air pressures — they all attract sensors, and a tiny particle is very difficult to pass.
For this reason, Rafael Long, a Purdue physicist and another member of the collaboration, said that gravity is not someone’s first choice when it comes to discovering dark matter.
“Oh, it’s a scary way because gravity is so weak,” he said. “It’s incredibly difficult. It’s so bad. Nothing is better than gravity.”
However, Long said the discovery of gravity, which intrigued him more than any other dark matter he had ever seen, was enough to overcome his reservation on the fundamental shortcomings of using the force of gravity to seek it out.
“It feels great,” Long said. “It’s going to be very difficult, but I think it’s very exciting.”
Scientists are following a section on another experiment called the LIGO collaboration Gravitational waves were first detected in 2015. The finder also relies on the most accurate measurements of objects for its observations. Lasers jumping back and forth between mirrors monitor their position with extraordinary accuracy, which is enough to detect the elongation and contraction of space time that occurs when scattered by a gravitational wave.
LIGO, Long explained, showed that their proposed finder could make the high-precision measurements needed to make it work. That test should be subject to all kinds of disturbing noises, including ocean waves, seismic activity and gaseous molecules emanating from the glass. After all, LIGO is able to keep the glass smooth enough to make movements smaller than the diameter of 1 / 10,000th of a proton.
The invention of the Windsime collaboration needs to be more precise. The invention must be very precise, even quantum fluctuations, caused by very small amounts of fundamental uncertainty in a sub-particle state, can throw off the inventors’ sensitivity, Carney details a The latest paper on physics review d. Quantum noise is a factor in LIGO, and experimentation has devised some ways to deal with it, including the use of manipulated light to mitigate quantum fluctuations. But to be more precise, Carney said, it can take years or even decades of work.
At the moment, the Windsime collaboration is in the early stages of creating a simple prototype of the inventor. This first proof of concept should be sensitive enough that, Carney thinks, the passing ball can be felt. Later versions of the inventor would dramatically increase sensitivity, moving the particles in and out of human leisure time.
Even if the finder is configured, its search will do nothing. Potential candidates for dark matter have masses of about 90 orders, covering everything from sub-particles to stars. Their invention can be found in particles with masses consisting of only two or three orders of magnitude centered on one hundredth of a gram.
Quark nugget or not, it would be an entirely new type of experiment for aeronautics scientists to discover a dark object, which offers the buzzing promise of new discoveries.
“Until last year, no one dreamed of such a device,” Long said. “Now we’re starting to build it.”
Nathaniel Scorpion is a science writer from Milwaukee. Follow him on Twitter Ather Nathaniel.
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