Black hole photography supports Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

Black hole photography supports Einstein's general theory of relativity.

Physicists are one step closer to how one of the most esoteric questions in science, the theory of general relativity, can be reconciled with quantum physics. The answer may be in supermassive black holes. The conflict at the heart of modern physics was sparked by a pair of papers written by Albert in 1905. Einstein. One explains his general theory of relativity, which explains the universe on a large scale by explaining gravity and its interaction with space-time, where planets orbit the sun, galaxies collide, and instead of floating into space, we cling to Earth. The other introduced quantum concepts developed to describe the universe at the subatomic level, including how atoms and particles interact with each other. The problem is that the two are not compatible. The general theory of relativity requires that the structure of the universe is smooth and continuous. At this level, events are deterministic, so any impact can be traced to the cause. Quantum mechanics, on the other hand, describes the division of the universe into energy packets or’quantums’. At this level, events generated by particle interactions occur in jumps known as quantum leaps probabilistically rather than specific outcomes. The difference may sound trivial, like the difference between high-resolution images showing more detail than low-resolution, but in reality it means that events are possible in quantum worlds that are not in the space-time world because particles can even be’connected’. When they are not physically close to each other. In 2014, Dutch researchers demonstrated that electrons can instantly affect each other even a mile away. And if you blow up the micro into a macro or vice versa, things are incredibly wrong. The theory of relativity gives a pointless answer when scaled down to a quantum size, and eventually produces infinite values ​​when describing gravity. Conversely, quantum fields transfer energy even in empty space. According to Einstein’s theory, energy and mass are equal (E = mc2), so increasing energy by expanding a quantum field is equivalent to accumulating mass. When it is large enough, the amount of energy in a sheet becomes so dense that it creates a black hole that causes the universe to fold itself. Not ideal. Now scientists at the University of Arizona have found a new way to test the theory, and have found that general relativity is not only comparable to scrutiny, but is about 500 times more difficult to beat. “We expect a full gravitational theory [combining the two opposing theories] It’s different from the general theory of relativity, but there are many ways to fix it. We have found that whatever the exact theory is, when it comes to black holes, it cannot be very different from the general theory of relativity. Dimitrios Psaltis, professor of astronomy at UArizona, was the lead author of a new paper published in the Physical Review by Psaltis, until recently, a project scientist in the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration. A letter detailing the findings of the study. To test general relativity, the team First photo Super giant black hole taken with EHT and its shadow. A black hole located in the middle of the Messier 87 galaxy in the Virgo Cluster 55 million light-years from Earth is 6.5 billion times that of our Sun. The size of a black hole is proportional to its mass. The larger the black hole, the larger the shadow. “At that time we couldn’t ask the opposite question. How different can the theory of gravity be from the theory of general relativity and can it still match the shadow size?” UArizona Steward Theory Fellow Pierre Christian said. “We wondered if there was anything we could do with these observations to derive some of the alternatives.” Their answer was to do an extensive analysis of the many modifications to the theory, filtering out those giving results that did not match the observed shadows. “In this way, we can now pinpoint whether an alternative to the theory of general relativity matches the Event Horizon telescope observation without worrying about other details,” said Lia Medeiros, a postdoctoral researcher at the institute who participated as a researcher. Said. “The size of the black hole shadows measured on the M87 using the gauge we developed is almost 500 when compared to previous tests in the solar system to revise Einstein’s general theory of relativity,” said UArizona, senior member of the EHT collaboration. Astronomy professor Feryal Özel said. “Many methods of modifying the general theory of relativity fail in this new, more rigorous black hole shadow test.” Özel admitted that general relativity was suitable for testing by observable phenomena, but noted that this new test strengthens the boundaries of how well tolerated. I did. “We always say that the general theory of relativity passed all the tests in flying colors. If I hear that, I only have a dime,” said Özel. “But it’s true. I don’t know that the results are different from what the general relativity theory predicts when performing a particular test. What we’re saying is all correct, but for the first time there’s a different gauge. That makes a test 500 times better. You can do and that gauge is the shadow size of a black hole. “”When we get an image of a black hole in the center of our galaxy, we can limit the deviation from the normal. The theory of relativity is further advanced,” she said. Next, the team’s list is to capture higher fidelity images with other telescopes, including the Greenland Telescope, the 12-meter telescope at Kit Peak near Tucson, and the extended millimeter array observatory in the north of France. “Along with gravitational wave observation, this marks the beginning of a new era in black hole astrophysics,” Psaltis said.

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