Many close relatives of our race, Homo sapiens, Held this earth from race Homo Formed 2 million years ago. These hominins lived in different habitats and challenging environments. Some even crossed paths And interference.
Scholars have debated much about our current uniqueness. Some proposed it H. Sabians‘ Excellent technology Skills may have given us an advantage over the rest. Others have suggested that we might have eaten Very different diet Or were Very talented racers Than other hominins.
Meanwhile, other researchers have found that some hominins do not become extinct if given too much reproduction. Combine thoroughly With our genetic pool.
Researchers also consider it Climate change May have played a role in the extinction Homo Species. A new study, published in the journal An earth, A diverse team of scientists from Italy, the United Kingdom and Brazil, said this factor was a major factor in the extinction of other hominins.
The authors hope that the findings will serve as a warning as humanity faces man-made climate change today.
“Even the brain power in the animal kingdom, [the Homo genus], When climate change intensifies, it cannot be sustained, “said Pascual Roy, an archaeologist at the University of Federico II in Naples, one of the authors of the study. People need to remember that we pose a current risk. “
For this study, the team focused on only six people who were approved Homo Species: H. Habilis, H. Ergoster, H.. Erectus, H. Heidelbergensis, H. Neanderthals, And H. Sabians. They excluded others because the available fossil records were too limited for their analysis.
Using a fossil database of 2,754 archaeological records, researchers have traced where these species lived over time – linking both fossil evidence and tools associated with each species to different locations and time periods.
They also used a statistical modeling technique called Past Climate Model, which uses available records to reconstruct weather conditions, including temperatures and rainfall over the past 5 million years.
“It provides a picture of the tremendous effects of climate change,” says anthropologist Giorgio Manzi.
Three of the five extinct creatures – H. Erectus, H. Hydelbergensis, And H. Neanderthals – There was a sudden strong change in climate shortly before the species died. The weather turned cold and dry for all three H. Heldelbergensis And Neanderthals, And moisture H. Erectus. According to Raya, the average change in temperature was about 4 to 5 degrees Celsius per year.
The researchers further assessed that these species are endangered by trying to determine their tolerance for climate change over time, using a clue to their presence in various locations.
Before disappearing, the team decided H. Erectus And H. Hydelbergensis Climate change has lost more than half of their vital space. The Neanderthals lost a quarter. Food resources may be depleted as habitats change, and cold may be a threat to the survival of organisms adapting to warmer climates.
This climate explanation does not mean that other drivers of destruction are not important – the authors refer to that competition H. SabiansFor example, things may have gotten worse for the Neanderthals – but Raya and his colleagues believe their analysis reveals a “primary factor” in the past Homo Destructions.
Extinction of Neanderthals studied – And discussed – Tyler Faith, an archaeologist at the University of Utah, says little, but not much attention has been paid to the loss of other Homin species. This new study marks the first attempt to understand how many Homo Species are extinct throughout places and large areas of time, he says.
“But I think the dismissal of other potentially destructive mechanisms is just the beginning,” Hope adds. He notes that the limited fossil record for some species makes it difficult to have a complete picture of other environmental or climatic conditions. Homo Can handle species.
Similarly, Giorgio Manzi, an anthropologist at the University of Sabienza in Rome, who did not participate in the study, points out that several factors must be taken into account to explain the disappearance of the past. Homo Species.
The relationship between climate change and destruction is complex, and he will not always lead to another: “At least, in the last million years, various sudden climate breakdowns and environmental crises have been known. These conditions have not always led to disasters.”
However, Manji hopes that the new work will create a fair case that climate change will have a major impact.
“It provides a picture of the tremendous effects of climate change on the human population of different species,” says Mansi.
The planet is expected to be hot Up to 5 degrees Celsius Above the forecast levels of 2100, more climate challenges lie ahead.