The large crane of this ancient bird breaks new ground in the fossil record

The large crane of this ancient bird breaks new ground in the fossil record

Every day, scientists discover Startling new information changes our understanding of ourselves Ancient world.

The latest innovation is about a bird with a large crane from the late Cretaceous period – the largest which lists a new curriculum History of evolution.

In a study published Wednesday Natural, Researchers describe a previously unknown species, Falcatakely forsterae, An ancient bird with an unusually large crane similar to a modern duck.

Rendering of an artist’s balcony forstera.Mark Witten.

Big bird – Fossils of this unknown bird species were first discovered by researchers in Madagascar.

But the fossil sample was fragile and contained many small bones, so it was not fully analyzed until 2017. But as the researchers sorted through the smaller pieces, they realized they had found something really special.

“As we began to carefully remove the rock around those delicate bones, it became very clear that it was like, ‘Oh, well, we’ ve got something very clean here. ‘ Patrick O’Connor, Says the lead author of the Ohio University Professor of Research and Anatomical Sciences Reverse.

After removing the rock, the scientists simulated the data collection in 3D using microcomputed tomography scanners. Then they used 3D-printing To make a replica of the bird skull.

“You know what anatomy is in this new animal, there’s a lot of digital modeling, you know,” O’Connor says.

The researchers named the species Falkadakeli (Roughly meaning ‘small flying scythe’) for its distinctive shaped face. They classified Falkadakeli As an enantiornithine bird, O’Connor says it was “a group of birds that lived during the time of the dinosaurs.” These birds often have teeth and Nails on their wings. All known creatures are now extinct.

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Still, Falkadakeli Unlike other ancient birds that lived 65-250 million years ago. Birds of this era – known as the Cretaceous Period – have different body shapes, but when it comes to their faces, they are identical.

Interpretation depicting the early bird Falkadakeli among non-Novian dinosaurs and other creatures during the late Cretaceous in Madagascar.Credit Mark Witten

Face Time – But with its long, deep hook, Falkadakeli The mold is broken.

“It simply came to our notice then Falkadakeli It has a different shape of face compared to anything else involved, ”says O’Connor.

The large crane of this bird resembles a modern bird.

This is a strange discovery. Modern birds are very different from ancient birds. Anatomy helps to explain the difference between most ancient birds Falcaque – And modern. It comes down to one bone in their skull: the premaxilla bone. It seems that the ancient birds located on the top of a bird’s beak did not use this bone to feed, whereas modern birds do.

“All of the diversity in modern bird face shape is actually driven by a bone called premaxilla bone,” says O’Connor. “It’s this bone that makes this crazy difference through growth, giving you the wide range of facial shapes we see around us today.”

Powered by Blogger Of Palkatekli Unique facial shape, the researchers wanted to understand, according to O’Connor, “what drives the shape of the face, not just in modern birds and endorphins.”

They compared the skeletal structure of the newly discovered bird with other organisms – including non-birds Dinosaurs.

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“We take a broader perspective. Well, we can see a whole range of animals that are relatively related to each other. Some of them are modern birds, some of them Mesozoic birds, and then non-avian dinosaurs are close relatives of bird radiation,” says O’Connor.

They found out Falkadakeli May have had a similar appearance to modern birds as a result of integrated evolution, which occurs when unrelated animals develop in similar ways and share the same characteristics. But unlike modern birds, the Falkadakeli Another bone in the skull receives its broad flagellum by expanding the maxillary bone.

“The point of aggregation is that it has a general overall shape, but it does not do so by altering the same bones of the face we see in modern birds,” says O’Connor. In contrast, the crane of this bird is close to the structure of one of the most ferocious dinosaurs, the Velociraptors.

“We use what we have described as an ancient arrangement of bone structure, which is very similar to things like velociraptor or microopter.”

The cranium of the bird of the Cretaceous Enteornii, as seen in the study, is Falcadageli Forsterre.Credit: O’Connor et al.

A new path – The finds carve a new path in the fossil record and boost scientists’ confidence in what ancient birds might have looked like.

“We never predicted there would be such a big and big bill, it would be based on Maxilla because we have never seen this in the fossil record,” says O’Connor.

But, most importantly, this study changes our understanding of ancient birds and how they evolved.

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“Birds that live in Mesozoic are very different than we know,” says O’Connor.

Summary: Mesozoic birds show significant differences in size, flight adaptations, and feather structure 1–4, but exhibit relatively preserved patterns of crane shape and growth 5–7. Although birds of the neuron (i.e., crown group) control 8,9 in facial development, they, unlike mesosoic birds, have relatively different crane shapes associated with a variety of feeding and behavioral environments. Here we describe a crow-sized stalk bird, the Folktagly Forstera gen. And S.P. nov., from the late Cretaceous period in Madagascar, is the expression of a superficially similar crane morphology to previously unknown and diverse crown-group birds (e.g., deacons) among Mesozoic birds. . The rostrum of the falcon is made up of an elaborate Endendulous maxilla and a small tooth-bearing premoxilla. Morphometric analyzes of individual skeletal organs and three-dimensional rostrum shape reveal neonitilon-like facial anatomical development, while retaining a maxilla-premaxilla structure. The design and increased height of the rostrum in Falcadelli reveal growth defect and increased morphological imbalance. The expression (and supposed ecology) of this phenotype in a stem bird underscores that integration into neonitin-like, primaxilla-dominated rostrum is not an evolutionary prerequisite for crane expansion.

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